Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling). Effect of chilling nights
Photoinhibition of photosynthesis was investigated in control (C) and chilling night (CN) leaves of grapevine under natural photoperiod at different sampling time in a day. The degree of photoinhibition was determined by means of the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and photosynthetic electron transport measurements. When the potential efficiency of photosystem (PS) 2, Fv/Fm was measured at midday, it markedly declined with significant increase of F0 in CN leaves. In isolated thylakoids, the rate of whole chain and PS2 activity were markedly decreased in CN leaves than control leaves at midday. A smaller inhibition of PS1 activity was also observed in both leaf types. Later, the leaves reached maximum PS2 efficiencies similar to those observed in the morning during sampling at evening. The artificial exogenous electron donors diphenyl carbazide, NH2OH, and Mn2+ failed to restore the PS2 activity in both leaf types at midday. Thus CN enhanced inactivation on the acceptor side of PS2 in grapevine leaves. Quantification of the PS2 reaction centre protein D1 following midday exposure of leaves showed pronounced differences between C and CN leaves. The marked loss of PS2 activity in CN leaves noticed in midday samples was mainly due to the marked loss of D1 protein of the PS2 reaction centre.