Reduction of GHG emissions in packaging & transportation


The choice of bottles:

Glass bottles represent between 70 and 80% of the carbon footprint of dry materials and 25 to 80% of the carbon footprint of dry materials. 35% of the total carbon footprint of wine. Source?

Selecting a bottle from reuse almost systematically represents the best choice of glass bottle, according to the experts. studies carried out by ADEME (2023), on indicators of GHG emissions and water consumption. This point largely depends on the washing conditions. It’s the use of fossil fuels or electricity. low carbon for melting and cooking glass which works to the disadvantage of the new bottle. Also, for a new bottle, around 35% of the raw materials in France do not come from recycling. If reuse is not possible (marketing choice of an “iconic” bottle, non-availability of a washing offer, etc…), then the selections of glass bottles could Evaluate the following criteria.

Choose lighter bottles. GHG emissions and other negative externalities linked to the single bottle logically decreases with the drop in bottle weight. The indirect effect of the light bottle is also positive on the carbon footprint of logistics and transport.

Select bottles with as much cullet as possible (recycled glass debris). Generally speaking, the darker the shade, the more possibility there is. to add cullet. The addition of cullet helps reduce CO2 emissions during bottle manufacturing, because the melting temperature of the cullet is approximately 30% lower than that of the bottle. the melting temperature of the raw materials. The use of cullet also avoids taking sand from the environment.

Choose a bottle produced by a glassmaker with a better environmental record, if comparisons are possible. In this matter, in the current state of publication obligations and practices, this choice is difficult. Important indicators of environmental assessments include tonnes of GHGs emitted per tonne of glass, the origin of electricity consumption, or water consumption.

Explore alternatives to the glass bottle according to environmental criteria.

Caps - closure systems

Prerequisite: the choice of the best shutter according to ecological criteria is more delicate than that of glass bottles because it implies consequences on the evolution of the wine, unlike à neutrality almost identical to all glass containers. Permeability and the risks of sensory deviations are at risk. to consider when choosing shutters.

In the absence of an analysis of comparative life cycles between the different types of caps, the choice of the shutter based on ecological criteria could be based on the elements following: the intensity of the energy needed to the manufacture of a shutter, the CO2 content of its components and the recyclability of the shutter. the traffic jam. The level of cork content, the traditional material of the cork and the use of which leads to positive externalities on the biotope (planting of trees, fighting fires).

The 4 main categories of shutters are:

  • 100% cork stoppers which do not contain any petroleum-sourced products and are easily recyclable (but currently very little recycled)
  • Agglomerated or micro-agglomerated corks, which contain between 60 and 95% cork and petro-sourced or bio-sourced agglomerates. These corks are less easily recyclable than 100% cork corks
  • So-called plastic caps, made from polymers, sometimes bio-sourced and recyclable but rarely recycled
  • The capsules screw: very good recyclability but whose manufacturing carbon footprint is a priori higher than other shutters

Labels: Printing support, Glassine, adhesive, inks

    • Choice of printing media: co-sourced paper, bio-sourced, recycled, paper weight,
    • Ink: digital printing allows energy savings thanks to faster setup, 
    • The format of the label: a smaller label uses less paper and ink.
    • A lower weight of glassines allows for better flexibility. in a label maker and the smaller volume label roll for the same number of labels.


More and more winegrowers are choosing, thanks to new regulatory and customs conditions, to no longer use overcaps. When an overcapsule is chosen, then the choice of materials (weight and recyclability) is important


  • Reflection on the papers, surface used and weight which will influence the weight and volume and therefore palletization
  • Same thoughts on packaging in cardboard (concept, materials)

Author: François Rey


File under review

Don't hesitate to contact us if you want to contribute to the transport aspect


  • Network
  • List
  • Geolocation

    Contact the referent of this page : François Rey